(From: 1 CORINTHIANS #10 - 9:1-27)
B. 9:1-27 - RESTRAINTS TO APOSTOLIC AUTHORITY
1. 9:1-2 PROOF OF APOSTLESHIP: A NEW CITY CHURCH
a. 9:1 QUESTIONS
Ouk eiMI eLEUthe-ros ? ouk eiMI aPOsto-los? ouCHI IeSOUN ton KUri-on heMON heOra-ka ?
Am I not free? am I not an apostle? have I not seen Jesus our :Lord?
ou to ERgon mou huMEIS es-te en KuRIo?
are not you my work in theLord?
b. 9:2 THE SEAL OF PAUL'S APOSTLESHIP
ei ALlois ouk eiMI aPOsto-los, alLA ge huMIN ei-mi;
If to others I am not an apostle, yet at least I am to you;
hegar sphraGIS mou tes a-po-stoLES huMEIS es-te en KuRIo.
for the seal of my :apostleship are YOU in theLord.
2. 9:3-18 REASONS FOR RELINQUISHING APOSTOLIC AUTHORITY
a. 9:3 My :defence to them that examine me is this.
HeeMEa-po-loGIa tois eME a-naKRInouSIN es-tin HAUte.
b. 9:4 Have we not authority to eat and to drink?
meouk Echo-men e-xouSIan phaGEIN kai pein ?
c. 9:5 PAUL'S RIGHT
me ouk Echo-men e-xouSIan a-delPHEN  guNAIka  pe-riAgein ,
Have we not authority to lead about a wife that is a sister,
hos kai hoi loiPOI aPOsto-loi, kai hoi a-delPHOI  tou KuRIou, kai KePHAS?
even as the rest of the apostles, and the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?
d. 9:6 Or I only and Barnabas, have we not authority to forbear working
eMOnos eGO kai BarNAbas, ouk Echo-men e-xouSIan meerGAzes-thai ?
e. 9:7 QUESTIONS
tis straTEUe-tai iDIois o-psoNIois poTE?
Who is ever a soldier at hisown charges?
tis puTEUei am-peLOna , kai ton karPON auTOU ouk esTHIei ?
who plants a vineyeard, and eats not its fruit?
etis poiMAInei POIMnen , kai ek tou GAlak-tos tes POIMnes ouk esTHIei?
or who feeds a flock, and eats not of the milk of the flock?
f. 9:8 Do I speak these thingsafter man's manner? or says not the law also thesame?
MekaTA ANthro-pon TAUta laLO? ekai ho NOmos TAUta ou LEgei?
g. 9:9a For it is written in the law of Moses, You shall not muzzle an ox threshing.
en gar to Mo-uSEos NOmo GEgrap-tai, Ou phiMOseis boUN a-loONta .
h. 9:9b-10a Or cares God for the oxen, 10a or says he it altogether for us?
meton boon MElei to TheO, e di' heMAS PANtos LEgei?
i. 9:10b APPLICATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT PRINCIPLE
di' heMAS gar eGRAphe; HOti oPHEIlei ep' elPIdi ho a-ro-triON a-ro-triAN;
Yes, for us it was written: because who plows ought to plow in hope;
kai ho a-loON , ep' elPIdi tou meTEchein .
and who threshes, to threshin hope of partaking.
j. 9:11 QUESTION
Ei' heMEIS huMIN ta pneu-ma-tiKA esPEIra-men ,
If we sowed for you :spiritual things,
MEga ei heMEIS huMON ta sar-kiKA theRIso-men ?
is it a great matterif we shall reap your :carnal things?
k. 9:12a If others partake of this:authority over you, do not we yet more?
ei ALloi tes huMON e-xouSIas meTEchou-sin , ou MALlon heMEIS?
l. 9:12b PAUL'S REASON FOR REFRAINING FROM USE OF APOSTOLIC AUTHORITY
all' ouk ech-reSAme-tha  te e-xouSIa TAUte; alLA PANta STEgo-men ,
But we did not use this :authority; but we bear all things,
HIna ME ti-na en-koPEN  DOmen  to eu-an-geLIo tou ChrisTOU.
that we may cause no hindrance to the gospel of the Christ.
m. 9:13 QUESTION
ouk OIda-te HOti hoi ta hi-eRA  er-gaZOme-noi  ta ek tou hi-eROU esTHIou-sin ;
Do you not know that who minister about the holy things eat of the things of the holy place;
hoi to thu-si-a-steRIo  pa-reDREUon-tes  to thu-si-a-steRIo sun-meRIzon-tai ?
they that wait upon the altar have their portion with the altar?
n. 9:14 Thus also the Lord ordainedthose proclaiming the gospel to live of the gospel.
HOUtos kai ho KUri-os diEta-xen  tois to eu-agGELli-on ka-tagGELlou-sin ek tou eu-ag-geLIou zen.
o. 9:15 PAUL'S REASON FOR REFRAINING FROM THIS RIGHT
eGO de ou KEchre-mai  ou-deNI TOUton: ouk Egra-psa de TAUta HIna HOUtos GEnetai en eMOI;
But I have used none of these things: and I write not these that it be so done in my case;
kaLON GAR moi MALlon a-po-thaNEIN , e - to KAUcheMA  mou ouDEIS keNOsei .
for it were good for me rather to die, than - none shall make my :glorying void.
p. 9:16 PAUL'S OBLIGATION CONCERNING THE GOSPEL
eAN gar eu-ag-geLIzo-mai , ouk EStin moi KAUche-ma; aNAGke  GAR moi ePIkei-tai ;
For if I preach the gospel, I have nothing to glory of; for necessity is laid upon me;
ouAI gar MOI es-tin, eAN me eu-ag-geLIso-mai.
for woe is me, if I should not preach the gospel.
q. 9:17 REWARD VERSUS STEWARDSHIP
ei gar heKON  TOUto PRASso , misTHON  Echo:
For if I do this of my will, I have reward:
ei de Akon , oi-ko-noMIan  pePISteu-mai .
but if not of mine own will, I have a stewardship intrusted to me.
r. 9:18a What then is my :reward? tis OUN moi esTIN ho misTHOS?
s. 9:18b PAUL'S SOLUTION: PREACHING WITHOUT CHARGE
HIna, eu-ag-ge-liZOme-nos, aDApa-non  THEso  to eu-anGEli-on,
That, when I preach the gospel, I may give the gospel without charge,
eis to me ka-taCHREsas-thai  te e-xouSIa mou en to eu-ag-geLIo.
so as not to use to the full my :authority in the gospel.
3. 9:19-23 EMPATHY: PAUL'S ADAPTATION OF AUTHORITY TO WIN ALL
a. 9:19 PAUL'S METHOD OF REACHING THE LOST
E-LEUthe-ros  gar hon ek PANton,
For though I was free from all,
PAsin a-mauTON eDOUlo-sa , HIna tous PLEIo-nas kerDEso .
I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more.
b. 9:20-21 PAUL ILLUSTRATES THIS
kai e-geNOmen  tois IouDAIois hos IouDAIos, HIna IouDAIous kerDEso;
And to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews;
tois huPO NOmon , hos huPO NOmon,
to those under law, as under law,
me on auTOS huPO NOmon, HIna tous NOmon kerDEso; tois aNOmois , hos Ano-mos,
not being myself under law, that I might gain those under law;21 to those without law, as without law,
meon Ano-mos TheOU, all' ENno-mos ChrisTOU, HIna kerDAno tous aNOmous.
not being without law to God, but under law to Christ, that I might gain those without law.
c. 9:22 HE CONTINUES HIS ILLUSTRATION
e-geNOmen tois as-theNEsin  as-theNES, HIna tous as-theNEIS kerDEso:
To the weak I became weak, that I might gain the weak:
tois PAsin GEgo-na PANta, HIna PANtos tiNAS SOso .
I am become all things to :all men, that I may by all means save some.
d. 9:23 And I do all thingsfor the gospel, that I may become joint partaker of it.
PANta de poiO diA to eu-agGEli-on, HIna sun-koi-noNOS  auTOU GEno-mai.
4. 9:24-27. AUTHORITY WITHOUT SELF-CONTROL BRINGS DISAPPROVAL
a. 9:24a PAUL USES THE MARATHON AS AN ILLUSTRATION
Ouk OIda-te HOti hoi en staDIo  TREchon-tes  PANtes men TREcou-sin,
Do you not know that who run in a racecourse run all,
heis de lamBAnei to braBEIon ?
but one receives the prize?
b. 9:24b So run that you may apprehend.
HOUtos TREche-te HIna ka-taLAbe-te .
c. 9:25a And every one that strives in games exercises self-control in all things.
pas de ho a-go-niZOme-nos  PANta eg-kraTEUe-tai .
d. 9:25b Now they do ittherefore to receive a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible.
eKEInoi men oun HIna phtharTON  STEphe-non  LAbo-sin; heMEIS de APHthar-ton .
e. 9:26-27 PAUL'S MOST SERIOUS SELF-DISCIPLINE IN THE CHRISTIAN RACE
eGO TOInun HOUtos TREcho , hos ouk aDElos ;
I accordingly so run, as not uncertainly;
HOUtos pukTEUo , hos ouk aEra  DEron :
so fight I, as not beating air:
alLA hu-po-piAzo  mou to SOma , kai dou-la-goGO :
27but I bruise my :body, and bring it into bondage:
mepos, ALlois keRUxas , auTOS aDOki-mos  GEno-mai.
lest by any means, after that I have preached to others, I mayself should be disapproved.
NOTE: There are many words of the Lord through Paul in this 4-fold section, that are worthy of our close attention and meditation. But as I prepared the above Interlinear section based on the work of Ivan Panin, two verses stood out to me - namely - 9:20-21.
We know that Paul as a rabbi was mentored by Gamaliel, and sat at his feet. We know also that for the first 3 years of his life as a new believer, he was sent by the Spirit into the desert of Arabia, and was there personally mentored by our Lord Jesus through the Spirit. There the 27 “Mysteries” of the New Testament were unfolded to him, many for the very first time. Old Testament prophets could not understand what the Spirit spoke and wrote through them concerning the coming church, including Gentiles. But to Paulwas this mystery made clear. In Ephesians 2 and 3 he went into some detail on this mystery of the “One New Man.” He believed that those who read his letter to this church, would understand this unusual revelation God had given him on this subject. Nor was this the onlymystery God unfolded to him, that had in the past been unclear.
Then Jesus appointed Paul as his apostle unto the Gentiles, just as Peter was the chief apostle to Jewish believers - the circumcision. And how did Paul conduct himself among the 14 city churches that God raised up through him, chiefly composed of Gentile believers?
Well, these two verses throw light on his personal understanding of his own ministry. Many have attempted to explain Paul's ministry. Isn't it better that we let him speak for himself? What he says may not always correspond with present day church doctrine, understanding and conduct - but it issignificant to hear Paul's understanding on these matters from his own lips. See his words on 9:20-21 again - “And to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to those under law, as under law, not being myself under law, that I might gain those under law; 21to those without law,as without law, not being without law to God, but under law to Christ, that I might gain those without law.”
First - whydid Paul have to become as a Jew to Jews, when his entire background was Jewish? He says it was so that he could win Jews. Then we can assume that as a believer in Christ, he was not bound by the Old Covenant or Testament as the Apostle to Gentiles, but moved in the New Testament and Covenant words of Jesus.
But every new city he visited, he first shared the Gospel with his fellow Jews, as he reports in Romans 1:16-17, “For I am not ashamed of the gospel: for it is God's power unto salvation to every :believer; to Jew first, also to Greek. 17For herein is being revealed God's righteousness from faith unto faith: as itis written, But the righteous manshall live by faith.” As these Jews invariably as a majority rejected his Gospel, he then with the small Jewish remnant who believed - turned to the Gentiles. But in his initial presentation of the Gospel to Jews, he becameas a Jew for their sakes, living in their traditions so that it would be easier for them to receive. But for those Gentiles without law, he became without the Old Covenant law of ordinances, so as to make it easier for Gentiles, and not be a hindrance to them with the yoke of bondage of the 613 Torah laws. He then walked in the spirit of Galatians and Acts 15.
Was he then without law? He avers that he was not- Notthe law of Old Testament commandments, but the law of the words of Christ under the New Covenant and Testament. Isn't this what he is saying in this portion of Scripture? He refusedto bring Gentile believers into bondage of circumcision. He refused to allow Titus as a Gentile to be circumcised. Yet he did command Timothy to be circumcised, for his mother and grandmother were Jewish, and he would need to be as Paul, when meeting with Jews in new cities.
I realize that this is notthe interpretation of this passage that one hears in many Messianic Jewish Congregations - but - is itwhat Paul is truly saying here?
It is also Paul who says, When we pray in our devotional prayer language - that we are praying to God - and these prayers are in line with the 27 “mysteries” of the New Covenant that God revealed to him in Arabia.
I am not saying a “Thus says the Lord” for the above, but I am saying - Let us be good Bereans (Acts 17:11) and like them search the Scriptures, and let themspeak to us as we meditate over them. - J.A.W.