(From: JOHN #40 - 18:28-40)
C. 18:28-40 JESUS BEFORE PILATE
1. 18:28-32 DEATH PENALTY SOUGHT FOR JESUS BY JEWS
a. 18:28 FROM CAIAPHAS TO PRAETORIUM
Agou-sin oun ton IeSOUN aPO tou KaiApha eis to praiTOri-on ,
They lead :Jesus therefore from :Caiaphas into the Praetorium,
en de proI; kai auTOI ouk eiSELthon eis to praiTOri-on,
and it was early; and themselves entered not into the Praetorium,
HIna me mi-anTHOsin , alLA PHAgo-sin to PAScha .
that they be not defiled, but might eat the passover.
b. 18:29 PILATE REQUESTS THE JEWISH ACCUSATION
eXELthen oun ho PeiLAtos Exopros auTOUS, kai pheSIN,
:Pilate therefore went out unto them, and says,
TIna ka-te-goRIan PHEre-te anTHROpou TOUtou?
What accusation do you bring against this :man?
c. 18:30 JEWS ARE RUDE TO PILATE
a-peKRIthesan kai EIpan auTO, Ei me en HOUtos kaKON poiON,
They answered and said to him, if this manwere not doing evil,
ouk AN soi pa-reDOka-men auTON.
we should not have delivered him up to you.
d. 18:31a PILATE THROWS IT BACK TO THEM
EIpen oun auTOIS PeiLAtos,
Pilate therefore said to them,
LAbe-te auTON huMEIS, kai kaTA ton NOmon huMON KRIna-te auTON.
YOU take him, and judge him according to your :law.
e. 18:31b-32 THE JEWS SEEK ROMAN CRUCIFIXION
EIpon auTOhoi IouDAIoi, HeMIN ouk Exe-stin a-pokTEInai ouDEna:
The Jews said to him, It is not lawful for us to put any oneto death:
HIna ho LOgos tou IeSOU ple-roTHE, hon EIpen,
32 that the word of :Jesus be fulfilled, which he spoke,
seMAInon POIo thaNAtoEmel-lein a-poTHNEskein.
signifying by what manner of death he should die.
2. 18:33-38a JESUS' PERSONAL WITNESS AS KING OF TRUTH
a. 18:33 PILATE QUESTIONS JESUS
EiSELthen oun PAlin eis to praiTOri-on ho PeiLAtos, kai ePHOne-sen ton IeSOUN,
:Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, and called :Jesus,
kai EIpen auTO, Su ei ho ba-siLEUS ton IouDAIon?
and said to him, Are you the King of the Jews?
b. 18:34 Jesus answered, Do YOU say this of yourself, or did others tell you concerning me?
a-peKRItheIeSOUS, A-PO se-auTOU su TOUto LEgeis, eALloi EI-PON soi peRI eMOU?
c. 18:35a :Pilate answered, Am I a Jew?
a-peKRItheho PeiLAtos, MEti eGOIouDAI-OS ei-mi?
d. 18:35b :Your :nation and the chief priests delivered you to me: what have you done?
to ETHnos  to son kai hoi ar-chi-eREIS pa-REdoKAN  se eMOI: ti aPOIe-sas?
e. 18:36 THE CLEAR ANSWER OF JESUS
a-peKRIthe IeSOUS, He ba-siLEIa he eME ouk EStin ek tou KOSmou TOUtou:
Jesus answered, :My :kingdom is not of this :world:
ei ek tou KOSmou TOUtou en he ba-siLEIa he eME,
if :my :kingdom were of this world,
hoi hu-peREtai  hoi eMOI e-goNIzon-to  an, HIna me pa-ra-doTHO  tois IouDAIois:
:my :servants would fight, that I not be delivered to the Jews:
nun de he ba-siLEIa he eME ouk EStin enTEUthen.
but now is :my :kingdom not hence.
f. 18:37a :Pilate therefore said to him, Are you king then?
EIpen oun auTOho PeiLAtos, OuKOUN ba-siLEUS ei su?
g. 18:37b :Jesus answered, You say that I am a king.
a-peKRItheho IeSOUS, Su LEgeis HOti basiLEUS ei-mi.
h. 18:37c CHRIST'S GOOD CONFESSION
eGO eis TOUto geGENne-mai , kai eis TOUto eLElu-tha
I to this end have been born, and to this end am I come
eis ten KOSmon, HIna mar-tuREso te a-leTHEIa .
into the world, that I should witness to the truth.
i. 18:37d Every one that is of the truth hears my :voice.
pas ho on ek tes a-leTHEIas aKOUei mou tes phoNES.
j. 18:38a Pilate says to him, What is truth? LEgei auTO ho PeiLAtos, TI es-tin aLEthei-a?
3. 18:38b-40 MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE: BOTH BY PILATE AND CROWD
a. 18:38b PILATE TURNS JESUS BACK TO JEWS
Kai TOUto eiPON, PAlin eXELthen pros tous IouDAIous,
And having said this, he went out again unto the Jews,
kai LEgei auTOIS, E-GO ou-deMIan heuRIsko  en auTO aiTIan .
and says to them, I find no crime in him.
b. 18:39 ACCORDING TO CUSTOM, PILATE SUGGESTS RELEASE OF JESUS
EStin de suNEthei-a  huMIN, HIna HEna a-poLUso  huMIN en to PAScha :
But you have a custom, that I should release you one at the passover:
BOUles-thai  oun a-poLUso huMIN ton ba-siLEa ton IouDAIon?
will you therefore that I release you the King of the Jews?
c. 18:40a They cried out therefore again, saying, Not this man, but :Barabbas.
eKRAUga-san  oun PAlin, LEgon-tes, Me TOUton, alLA ton Ba-rabBAN.
d. 18:40b Now :Barabbas was a robber. hen de ho Ba-rabBAS leSTES .
NOTE: Pilate tried in every way he could think of to avoid putting Jesus to death according to the wish of the Jews. He knewthat it was for envythat they delivered Jesus up for death, and he knewthat Jesus was truly innocent of any charge consigning Him to death.
Yet because of the pressure of the Jewish leaders, he finally capitulated, and perverted justice. Imagine, the Jewish leaders had such a hatred for Jesus, that they preferred a robber to be released, rather than an innocent man be set free! That this played into the hands of the Father to have His Son bring Redemption and Reconciliation to the lost race of Adam, in no wisefrees the Jewish leaders from guilt. They like Judas are equally guilty. And Pilate also is guilty, though notto as great a measure as the Jewish leaders. Thisinsight comes from the very lips of Jesus Himself!
Carefully look at the title summaries of this section. They are notinspired, but they arein line with the Bible Numeric sentence, subdivision and paragraph divisions set forth by the discovery of Ivan Panin in 1890. One day his discoveries will be acknowledged as God's design to establish the authority of His Bible. All that portion of mankind who hate God and His Word, will in that day acknowledge that God and His Word are both oneand true- and every man a liar. The homosexuals will have to acknowledge this, and all the liberal, humanistic thinkers who pander to them.
Dr. David Stern in his “Jewish New Testament Commentary” clearly points out the truth of Hebrews 8:6 - “The New Covenant has been given as Torah.” “This is a virtually unknown theological truth of far-reaching importance. First, although there are many, both Jews and Christians, who suppose that the New Testament abrogated the Torah, the New Testament here explicitly states that it has itself been given as Torah. Obviously, if the New Testament is Torah, then the Torahhas not been abrogated. Instead, the New Testament has been given the same status as the Torahof Moses; that is, it has come to have the highest authority there is, the authority that accompanies promulgation by God himself. One might say that Torahhas been expanded - or, better, that Torahhas been made more explicit.
“Second, the fact that the New Covenant has been given as Torahmeans that a Jew is not Torah-true, he is not a Torah-observant Jew, unless he accepts the New Testament as Torah. A Jew considers himself shomer-mitzvot, “an observer of [the] commandments,” is deluding himself if he does not obey the New Covenant. Unless he trusts in Yeshua as Messiah and as his atonement for sin, he is disobeying Torah.
“And third it means that a Gentile grafted into Israel by his faith in Yeshua the Messiah (Romans 11:17-24, Ephesians 2:8-16) has himself come into the framework of Israel's Torah. Although what this Torahdemands of him differsfrom what it demands of a Jew (see Acts 15:20 and Stern's notes), a Gentile Christian should never think of himself as 'free from the Law,' as many do.
“That the New Covenant has become Torahis absolutely crucial for understanding the New Testament. Yet, so far as I know, not one existing translation brings out this truth; nor to my knowledge, does any commentary so much as mention it. In fact, the issue is avoided altogether. To give a typical example, the Revised Standard Version in this verse says merely that the New Covenant 'is enacted' on better promises.
“A look at the Greek text will explain why the subject has been ignored. The phrase, 'has been given as Torah,' is my rendering of the passive, perfect-tense verb, 'nenomotheTEtai.' This is a compound word formed
from'nomos and'tiTHEmi.''TiTHEmi'is a common word meaning 'lay put, place, make'; and in general - that is, when there is no specifically Jewish context - 'nomos' may be translated 'law.' Thus in connection with the Roman Senate or the Athenian Areopagus it is quite properly rendered 'to legislate, enact, establish as law.'
“But 'nomos'is also the word used in the Septuagint and other Jewish literature written in Greek to render the Hebrew word 'Torah'. Since the New Testament was written by Jews, the word 'nomos' or any of its compounds must always be checked wherever it appears to see whether it refers to 'law' in general or 'Torah' in particular. The word 'nomos' appears 14 times in the book of Messianic Jews; and every time, without exception, it means 'Torahand never merely 'law.'
“I challenge non-Messianic Jews and Gentile Christians alike to recognize that the New Testament has been given as Torah, to recognize the three implications of this fact stated in the three initial paragraphs of this note, and to draw the appropriate conclusions.”
The above is taken from “Jewish New Testament Commentary” by David H. Stern. For the last 20 years I have been aware of his insight, and have unreservedly accepted its correctness. It meets the requirements of scholarship. I met David Stern in Israel in 1992, and highly regard his various publications. J.A.W.